Hot flashes

In a study reported in Dr. Weil’s Self Healing, hot flash frequency was reduced by 50% and the intensity of the hot flashes was reduced by 57% by adding 2 tablespoons of ground flax seed into cereal, yogurt or juice twice a day, for 6 weeks.


Kidney stones

If you had or know of someone who has had a kidney stone it may have been one of the most painful experiences in life.

From the Townsend Letter with Dr. Alan Gaby giving the commentary:

Lemonade prevents kidney stone recurrences
Eleven patients with recurrent kidney stones associated with hypocitraturia (low urinary citrate excretion) who had been on long-term lemonade therapy were evaluated after a mean treatment period of 3.7 years. Lemonade therapy consisted of 120 ml per day of concentrated lemon juice (containing 5.9 g of citric acid) mixed with two liters of water and consumed throughout the day. Ten of the 11 patients drinking lemonade had an increase in urinary citrate levels, and the mean level increased from 350 mg per day at baseline to 733 mg per day (p < 0.05). The mean stone formation rate decreased from 1.00 per person per year at baseline to 0.13 per person per year during lemonade therapy. This 87% decrease failed to achieve statistical significance, presumably because of the small sample size.


Comment: Many recurrent stone formers have hypocitraturia. Oral administration of potassium citrate increases the amount of citrate in the urine and has been shown to reduce the stone recurrence rate substantially. Potassium citrate is therefore considered first-line therapy by most urologists for patients with hypocitraturic recurrent nephrolithiasis. However, potassium citrate can cause gastrointestinal side effects, which preclude its use in some cases. Lemons have a high concentration of citrate, about five times as much as oranges. In a previous study, ingestion of two liters of lemonade per day more than doubled urinary citrate excretion in a group of recurrent stone formers and increased the level to normal in seven of 12 patients. The results of the new study suggest that lemonade is a reasonable alternative to potassium citrate in patients with hypocitraturic nephrolithiasis.


Kang DE, et al. Long-term lemonade based dietary manipulation in patients with hypocitraturic nephrolithiasis. J Urol. 2007;177:1358-1362.

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